LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) involves the transport of gas by LNG tanker ships.
The gas is liquefied by cooling to a temperature of minus 162°C. The volume is then around 1/600th of the original gas volume. This permits the transcontinental transport of gas on ships independently of existing pipeline systems.
At present, LNG tankers have capacities of up to 210,000 cbm (equal to 126 million cbm in a gaseous state). The cargo is stored in several well insulated tanks.
The LNG is unloaded and temporarily stored in tanks at the destination port. It is then transferred to an evaporation plant where it is returned to its original gaseous state by heating before being injected into the pipeline network.
Japan imports its entire demand for natural gas with LNG tankers because the surrounding waters are too deep for the laying of a pipeline.